Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) is a purine nucleotide that is an intermediate in cellular metabolism and nucleic acid metabolism. AMP is directly involved in many normal biochemical processes including protein synthesis (intermediate to Krebs cycle), and is a precursor to the energy carrier molecule ATP. It is also a key component in certain enzyme reactions necessary for proper fat and carbohydrate metabolism. AMP appears to be beneficial for correcting low energy production due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Research shows that AMP is a precursor or building block for ATP and is known as the principal energy carrier in all living cells because energy is stored in the “high energy” phosphate bonds. For example, when a living cell breaks down a compound like glucose, some of the energy released is caught and packaged into ATP. This stored energy can be subsequently released to meet metabolic demands. It is speculated by research that since AMP is converted to ATP by enzyme ATPase, low levels of ATPase may predispose people to be overweight. The New England Journal of Medicine reports that ATPase levels are 22% lower in overweight subjects. Supplementing with AMP could increase the calories burned by pumping sodium and potassium across cell membranes, thereby increasing energy and metabolic function. Other published uses include auto-immune disorders, memory loss, stress, varicose veins, muscle and joint pain, chronic fatigue, and energy production.